This R&D initiative, led by Grid Engineers and supported by the National Technical University of Athens, aimed at proposing a resilient approach for designing earth retaining structures. The initiative included in depth engineering assessments combining analytical and experimental work in order to optimize the design of such walls which are characterized by their low carbon footprint. The assignment resulted in practices allowing more efficient construction and savings in resources while maintaining the structural robustness of the systems.


  • Georgiou I., Loli M., Kourkoulis R., Gazetas G. “Pull-out of Steel Grids in dense Sand: Experiments and Design Insights”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering (accepted for publication).
  • Loli M., Georgiou I., Tsatsis A., Kourkoulis R., Gelagoti F. (2018). “Pull-out testing of steel reinforced earth systems: modeling in view of soil dilation and boundary effects,” Proc. 9th International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics, ICPMG’18, London, UK, 17 – 20 July 2018.
  • Kourkoulis R., Gelagoti F., Georgiou I., G. Gazetas (2017), “Optimized Performance of MSE retaining walls subjected to extreme ground shaking”, PBDIII, Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Vancouver. Georgiou I., Gelagoti F., Kourkoulis R., Gazetas G. (2016), “MSE: a Resilient Retaining System”, 1st International Conference on Natural Hazards and Infrastructure, Chania, Greece.

Foundations and Geotechnical Design

Road Transportation